Gender and time use patterns among Iranian older adults

Maryam Sharifian Sani, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran
Nasibeh Zanjari, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran
Rasoul Sadeghi, University of Tehran and National Institute of Population Research, Iran
Shahnaz Babakhanian, Independent Researcher

Despite the great volume of research on the time use of older adults, much less attention has been given to time use patterns of older adults in Iran, mainly from a gender perspective. Considering gender differences in time use patterns among older adults provides insight into continuity of socially constructed role and its implications for well-being. This study focuses on the importance of gender in formation the different aspects of time use. In particular, we examine gender differences in the allocation of time use among older Iranians with controlling other socio- demographic correlates. Time use data helps us to explain gender gaps in leisure time, employment and health related behaviors. The secondary data analysis of Iranian Time-use Survey (2009-2010) was used. The data collected in cities by questionnaire based on stratified sampling. The sample size was 3516 of Iranian elderly (60 years and older) who lived in urban areas. Multiple classification analysis (MCA) is used to data analysis. The findings showed significantly gender differences in time use patterns. While men spent more time in labour market for paid work, women allocated their time to unpaid work and social volunteering work. In term of leisure time results showed men spend more time to active leisure than women. The gender gap in time allocation may be dependent upon the socio-demographic variables. Controlling for socio-economic and demographic variables (such as age, education, living arrangement, marital status, employment situation, and so on), we found significant gender differences in time use patterns (paid work, unpaid work, leisure time, Personal care activities). Therefore, gender play a crucial role in shaping time allocation. This is the outcome of gender role attitudes, gender inequality and cultural beliefs. Gender sensitive intervention is an important point for the achievement of development goals.

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 Presented in Session P2. Poster Session 2